Computers and studio gear http://personal-view.com/talks/categories/computers-and-studio-gear/feed.rss Mon, 18 Feb 19 19:10:55 -0700 Computers and studio gear en-CA AMD Zen 2 aka Ryzen 3000 CPUs details http://personal-view.com/talks/discussion/20830/amd-zen-2-aka-ryzen-3000-cpus-details Tue, 06 Nov 2018 17:02:23 -0700 Vitaliy_Kiselev 20830@/talks/discussions image

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The move to 7nm allowed AMD to make lot of advances with its Rome-based EPYC processor core microarchitecture:

  • 2X Performance per Socket
  • 4X Floating Point performance per socket
  • Previous gen socket compatible
  • Forward compatible with next gen Milan platform that supports PCI Express 4 connectivity
  • Improved branch prediction 
  • Better instructions prefetch 
  • Re-optimized micro-op instruction cache
  • Increased the size of the micro-op cache  
  • Doubled floating point width to 256-bit 
  • Doubled load store bandwidth 
  • Increased dispatch and retire bandwidth 
  • Results in maintained high throughput for all modes

Nice thing

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AMD TR2 x399 HEDT Motherboard Selection Guide for Video Editors http://personal-view.com/talks/discussion/21511/amd-tr2-x399-hedt-motherboard-selection-guide-for-video-editors Sun, 10 Feb 2019 00:59:31 -0700 Vitaliy_Kiselev 21511@/talks/discussions Reserved, update soon.

Now filling all boards lists with data.

X399 chipset diagram

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If you look at this you will see how mighty is CPU, but how shitty is ASMedia made chipset.

In reality it is same features and restrictions chipset as consumer X370 one.

In reality we can have exactly same die used for A320/B350/X370/X399 chipsets.

Comparison of TR2 platform to consumer, Ryzen one

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Galaxy Tab S5e - nice OLED screen tablet http://personal-view.com/talks/discussion/21561/galaxy-tab-s5e-nice-oled-screen-tablet Sat, 16 Feb 2019 18:56:25 -0700 Vitaliy_Kiselev 21561@/talks/discussions

  • 10.5 inches AMOLED 1600 x 2560 pixels, 16:10 ratio screen
  • Qualcomm SDM670 Snapdragon 670
  • 4GB RAM+64GB NAND
  • MicroSD support up to 512GB
  • 13Mp main camera + 8Mp front one
  • USB Type C 3.1 port
  • Has adapter for headphones
  • Wi-Fi 802.11 a/b/g/n/ac 2.4Ghz+5Ghz, Bluetooth v5.0
  • Android 9.0
  • UHD 4K (3840x2160) @ 30fps video record
  • Can play UHD 4K (3840x2160) @ 60fps in HEVC and H.264
  • 7 040mAh battery
  • 4 speakers
  • 245 x 160 x 5,5mm
  • 400g
  • $399
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AMD AM4 Motherboards Selection Guide for Video Editors http://personal-view.com/talks/discussion/21405/amd-am4-motherboards-selection-guide-for-video-editors Sat, 26 Jan 2019 15:19:23 -0700 Vitaliy_Kiselev 21405@/talks/discussions Topic solely for selection of motherboard for your AM4 Ryzen CPU based system.

Focused on video editor needs

I'll be adding systematic info post by post.

Ideal modern video editor motherboard must allow:

  • Work with overclocked 8 core CPUs fine without VRM issues, preferably be ready for upcoming 16 core chips
  • Have ability to install pair of NVMe x4 SSD drives (one can be using PCIe 2.0), M.2 slot not located under GPU hot air is big plus!
  • Have pair of USB 3.1 Gen2 10Mbit ports so you can transfer data from/to your fast SSD quick - check more . Front panel connector is also big plus.
  • Have or allow to install 10Gbit Ethernet/56Gbit Infiniband network adapter to quickly use directly or dump large amount of footage at NAS/Server.
  • Have proper slots alignment taking in account that some good GPUs have 2.5 slot sized cooling.
  • Installing 2nd GPU always leads to lot of compromises on this platform, but if this is performance bottleneck - go for it.

CPU info and limits

You are searching board for Ryzen 2700/2700X or at least 1700/1700X/1800X, it is not much reason to look for other CPUs.

Ryzen is gaming/consumer CPU with serious IO shortcomings by design (but less serious compared to Intel consumer line).

  • Ryzen chips have 24 PCIe v3.0 lines.
  • 4x goes to NVMe slot of board (Intel lacks this).
  • 16x go to GPU - and this one on A320 and B350/450 can't be split (aka bifurcation), to force MB makers to buy more expensive chipsets for SLI.
  • 4x is left for the chipset (on Intel it is same). Chipset uses them for lot of things, including making multiple PCIe 2.0 lines.

Note Actual Ryzen die has full 32 PCIe 3.0 lines, but it had been decided that it will be too nice to allow consumer PCs to use them all. References that somehow AMD does not have free pins in socket is absolute bullshit.

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Note! Ryzen 2200G or 2400G are designed such way that they provide only 8 PCIe 3.0 lines to GPU instead of 16x and they can't be split.
So, forget about idea of using them for any advanced tasks.

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Chipset difference

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If you look carefully you understand that you must avoid B350/B450 chipsets at all cost, not mentioning A320.

  • First reason - they do not allow to split x16 into two PCIe x8 slots, this is very bad for us* (see note below).
  • Second reason - they have less general purpose PCIe 2.0 lines, 2 less sounds like not much, but it is very important on our limited consumer CPU IO budget.

Note about bifurcation/split. As usual in capitalism - it is artificially removed and disabled feature. On Asrock ITX B350/B450 boards such options is present and works. It had been done due to large request from users/buyers and some other companies do this (keeping silence so it won't become open knowledge among too many, yet you still need to modify BIOS to enable SLI). But even with such options it is horrible life as you need custom impossible to find riser and turning GPU card into vertical state or such.

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SSD performance limits on Ryzen

Second M.2 slot on almost all boards where it is present will be using PCIe 2.0 x2 or x4 mode.

PCIe 2.0 per-lane throughput is 5GT/s or 500MB/s of actual data transfer per lane. x2 will be capped at 1GB/sec recording/reading and x4 at 2GB/sec recording/reading, no matter if the limit of SSD you put in it is higher.

First M.2 slot uses four dedicated v3.0 lines. Single PCIe 3.0 lane at 8GT/s, can send 985MB/s. This limit is close to 4GB/sec.

Network stuff

Ideally we want 10Gbit adapter, but most probably you will need free x4 slot for one - check https://www.personal-view.com/talks/discussion/21364/making-10gbit-network-using-sfp-adapters-for-cheap#Item_11

Among 1Gbit always aim for Intel, it is not much difference but saves little CPU load

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Intel LGA 2066 x299 HEDT Motherboard Selection Guide for Video Editors http://personal-view.com/talks/discussion/21510/intel-lga-2066-x299-hedt-motherboard-selection-guide-for-video-editors Sat, 09 Feb 2019 20:39:27 -0700 Vitaliy_Kiselev 21510@/talks/discussions Reserved, update soon.

Now filling all boards lists with data.

X299 chipset diagram

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If you look at this you see quite underwhelming stuff, it is still much better than AMD chipset as provides 24 PCIe 3.0 lines.
Link to CPU is still same slow DMI 3.0 (PCI 3.0 x4 total only).
But other than extra 2 SATA ports it is identical in every way to consumer Z270-Z370 chipsets.
Can check yourself at https://www.personal-view.com/talks/discussion/21493/intel-lga1151-z170-z270-z370-and-z390-motherboard-selection-for-video-editors#Item_18

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Nvidia RTX 20xx Turing GPUs - little performance for much more money http://personal-view.com/talks/discussion/19013/nvidia-rtx-20xx-turing-gpus-little-performance-for-much-more-money Wed, 14 Feb 2018 15:34:55 -0700 Vitaliy_Kiselev 19013@/talks/discussions Rumors for now

  • Initial announcement will happen at GPU Technology Conference at 26 to 29 March.
  • GPU will be based on simplified Volta architecture
  • Will have around 30% performance boost, mostly due to memory and more cores
  • It'll be variants with GDDR6 and GDDR5 RAM, staring with 4GB (due to RAM shortages)
  • Recommended price will be around 10% more than Pascal upon introduction
  • Actual price will be around 35-40% more for at least half a year
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Mac Mini - meet the bad cooling with premium pricing http://personal-view.com/talks/discussion/20778/mac-mini-meet-the-bad-cooling-with-premium-pricing Tue, 30 Oct 2018 11:41:48 -0600 Vitaliy_Kiselev 20778@/talks/discussions

Cranked up fan speeds (you wanted thin and small case? No? Fuck you!)

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  • $800 for Core i3 /8GB / 128 soldered SSD (price of Ryzen 8 core desktop with 16GB RAM/480GB SSD if you look carefully for deal)
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Short FAQ on Ethernet Cables and Patch Cords http://personal-view.com/talks/discussion/21533/short-faq-on-ethernet-cables-and-patch-cords Thu, 14 Feb 2019 03:05:25 -0700 Vitaliy_Kiselev 21533@/talks/discussions I'll try to collect here common QnA and also typical myths and Chinese manufacturers tricks.

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Capitalism: Planning and DRAM http://personal-view.com/talks/discussion/17041/capitalism-planning-and-dram Mon, 29 May 2017 08:04:14 -0600 Vitaliy_Kiselev 17041@/talks/discussions image

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Capitalism is very efficient, somewhere. DRAM prices (same as NAND) is kind of mad, due to production/consumption issues and cartel agreements that followed.

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Small guys http://personal-view.com/talks/discussion/8094/small-guys Fri, 13 Sep 2013 11:56:31 -0600 Vitaliy_Kiselev 8094@/talks/discussions image

http://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/nuc/nuc-kit-d54250wyk.html

NUC. Now on Haswell :-)

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BRIX. Same shit.

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Can Platinum and Titanium PSUs be worse than cheaper ones? http://personal-view.com/talks/discussion/21481/can-platinum-and-titanium-psus-be-worse-than-cheaper-ones Mon, 04 Feb 2019 22:19:12 -0700 Vitaliy_Kiselev 21481@/talks/discussions Yes, they can.

Main marketing push is efficiency. Yet beyond good Bronze PSU it is questionable, beyond Gold it is stupid.

Rising efficiency means that you need to reduce losses in elements of PSU.

Bronze PSU do this by going from group stabilization to DC-DC converters for 5V and 3.3V. Good Bronze PSU can have very high efficiency and use elements (mostly MOSFETS) designed for much higher load to further reduce losses.

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Gold PSU is doing efficiency improvement mostly by switching to so called LLC resonant half-bridge scheme (some PSUs even use full-bridge to gain 1-2% more efficiency).

Further progress requires to put even more beefy elements and ... actually reduce voltage quality.

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Main savings start to come from reducing number of transistors switching events. The lower the PWM frequency - the higher the ripple voltage (you can compensate it with capacitors, but still).

It is much better idea to put nice good heatsinks (very cheap extruded alu) and high quality fan and reduce it's speed a lot where possible.

But in reality we have huge marketing expenses, certification costs, stupid idea of half/full passive modes, Japanese capacitors craze and much more of such shit.

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AMD Radeon VII GPU is made for video editing http://personal-view.com/talks/discussion/21287/amd-radeon-vii-gpu-is-made-for-video-editing Wed, 09 Jan 2019 16:32:16 -0700 Vitaliy_Kiselev 21287@/talks/discussions

Lot of high speed HBM memory - 16GB, nice calc performance.

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Intel LGA1151 Z170, Z270, Z370 and Z390 Motherboard Selection for Video Editors http://personal-view.com/talks/discussion/21493/intel-lga1151-z170-z270-z370-and-z390-motherboard-selection-for-video-editors Wed, 06 Feb 2019 16:18:48 -0700 Vitaliy_Kiselev 21493@/talks/discussions Chipsets general information.

Chipset diagrams and PCie lines limits

Z170

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Z270

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Almost no change, but now it is 24 PCIe 3.0 lines go from chipset. 4 more than previous.

Z370

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All same as Z270, just support for newer CPUs.

Z390

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Only significant changes are USB 3.1 Gen2 ports supported by chipset and also support for additional WiFi and Bluetooth.

DMI 3.0, released in August 2015, allows the 8 GT/s transfer rate per lane, for a total of four lanes and 3.93 GB/s for the CPU–PCH link.

In August 2007, PCI-SIG announced that PCI Express 3.0 would carry a bit rate of 8 gigatransfers per second (GT/s)

So DMI 3.0 is PCIe 3.0 4x. And all this nice looking premium MB's share same actual 20x PCIe 3.0 lines.

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Computer Power Suppliers, PSU, PV collection of info http://personal-view.com/talks/discussion/19662/computer-power-suppliers-psu-pv-collection-of-info Mon, 07 May 2018 23:12:26 -0600 Vitaliy_Kiselev 19662@/talks/discussions In previously common 80mm fans PSU capacitor location was quite good, as it is near air intake. Lot of air passes by.

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As we move to present day

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Air coming from top, but lot of time capacitor is in the corner, give it 85 degrees rated capacitor and some time and it'll be issue. Photo above is for good PSU (no longer made) that fail with around 90% probability within 3-5 years time.

Sample of one of Seasonic PSU designs

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Better cooling, 105 degrees Japan capacitors and hence very long warranty (they have 7-11 year for good products).

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How capitalism ruins SSD storage http://personal-view.com/talks/discussion/21499/how-capitalism-ruins-ssd-storage Thu, 07 Feb 2019 21:36:12 -0700 Vitaliy_Kiselev 21499@/talks/discussions Look at this chart:

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QLC line looks nice, isn't it?

This is example of capitalist greed, each of them want maximum profits no matter the damage made.

3D QLC production cost is slightly higher compared to 3D TLC, to compensate for it and further increase profits lot of firms simplify chip designs in logic part. Making it less channels and use simplified design.

Present profits of firms like Samsung and Micron selling latest 65-96 layers QLC and TLC can reach as high as 500-2000% from production costs. Similar to drug cartels and their methods are exactly the same - bribes and corruption.

For almost 3 years we have cartel agreement that only allow moderate slides after strong push (this time it had been Chinese agencies, rumors are that they told that otherwise they make public real cost calculations).

NVMe controllers profit margins are also huge, controller manufacturing cost is usually LOWER than SATA one due to simpler protocol, yet wholesale chip price can reach 5x-10x of SATA controller prices, and all major manufacturers also meet regularly and set coordinated prices.

Next layer of protection is manufacturers of equipment used to make NAND chips, they are tightly controlled, and are part of cartel agreement. Their interest - keep huge margins on their equipment and do not allow any competition.

Same goes for Optane memory. Intel wants to control production volume and tightly control speed and prices (hence their conflict with Micron). Same Intel is in constant talk to NAND manufacturers.

Industry rumors are that current Optane memory is around 4 times slowed down, both by design and controller. As well as prices are kept artificially 4x higher than they could be. Intel goal is to go slow and not destroy NAND industry, as well as being able to get huge profits at corporate and datacenters areas.

Capitalism forces firms and people to hide information where public is fed with fairy tales. And it also huge impact on real progress.

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Apple MacBook Pro 2018 http://personal-view.com/talks/discussion/20054/apple-macbook-pro-2018 Thu, 12 Jul 2018 10:16:48 -0600 Vitaliy_Kiselev 20054@/talks/discussions

PR

Apple updated MacBook Pro with faster performance and new pro features, making it the most advanced Mac notebook ever. The new MacBook Pro models with Touch Bar feature 8th-generation Intel Core processors, with 6-core on the 15-inch model for up to 70 percent faster performance and quad-core on the 13-inch model for up to two times faster performance — ideal for manipulating large data sets, performing complex simulations, creating multi-track audio projects, or doing advanced image processing or film editing. Already the most popular notebook for developers around the world, the new MacBook Pro can compile code faster and run multiple virtual machines and test environments easier than before. Additional updates include support for up to 32GB of memory, a True Tone display and an improved third-generation keyboard for quieter typing. And with its powerful Radeon Pro graphics, large Force Touch trackpad, revolutionary Touch Bar and Touch ID, dynamic stereo speakers, quiet Apple-designed cooling system, and Thunderbolt 3 for data transfer, charging and connecting up to two 5K displays or four external GPUs, it’s the ultimate pro notebook.

“The latest generation MacBook Pro is the fastest and most powerful notebook we’ve ever made,” said Philip Schiller, Apple’s senior vice president of Worldwide Marketing. “Now with 8th-generation 6-core processors, up to 32GB of system memory, up to 4TB of super fast SSD storage, new True Tone technology in its Retina display and Touch Bar, the Apple T2 chip for enhanced security and a third-generation quieter keyboard packed into its thin and light aluminium design with all-day battery life, it’s the best notebook for pro users.”

Faster, More Powerful Pro Notebook Computing

The new MacBook Pro is now faster and more powerful, with 8th-generation 6-core Intel Core processors on the 15-inch MacBook Pro for up to 70 percent faster performance and 8th-generation quad-core Intel Core processors on the 13-inch model for performance that’s up to twice as fast.* With the option to add up to 32GB of memory on the 15-inch MacBook Pro, users can run more apps simultaneously or load larger files into memory. And with up to a 2TB SSD on the 13-inch model and up to a 4TB SSD on the 15-inch, MacBook Pro gives customers the flexibility to work with large asset libraries and projects wherever they go.

Retina Display with True Tone Delivers Ultimate Viewing Experience

With 500 nits of brightness and support for the P3 wide colour gamut, the Retina display on MacBook Pro is the best Mac notebook display ever. Now with True Tone technology, the display and Touch Bar deliver a more natural viewing experience for design and editing workflows, as well as everyday tasks like browsing the web and writing email.

Apple T2 Chip Delivers Enhanced Security and “Hey Siri” on Mac

Also new to MacBook Pro is the Apple T2 chip, first introduced in iMac Pro. With the Apple T2 chip, MacBook Pro now delivers enhanced system security with support for secure boot and on-the-fly encrypted storage, and also brings “Hey Siri” to the Mac for the first time.

15-Inch MacBook Pro Highlights:

  • 6-core Intel Core i7 and Core i9 processors up to 2.9 GHz with Turbo Boost up to 4.8 GHz
  • Up to 32GB of DDR4 memory
  • Powerful Radeon Pro discrete graphics with 4GB of video memory in every configuration
  • Up to 4TB of SSD storage2
  • True Tone display technology
  • Apple T2 chip
  • Touch Bar and Touch ID

13-Inch MacBook Pro Highlights:

  • Quad-core Intel Core i5 and i7 processors up to 2.7 GHz with Turbo Boost up to 4.5 GHz and double the eDRAM
  • Intel Iris Plus integrated graphics 655 with 128MB of eDRAM
  • Up to 2TB of SSD storage2
  • True Tone display technology
  • Apple T2 chip
  • Touch Bar and Touch ID

Back to School with MacBook Pro

The new MacBook Pro is also part of Apple’s Back to School promotion starting today and available to college students, their parents, faculty and staff through the Apple Education Store. The promotion includes a pair of qualifying Beats headphones with the purchase of any eligible Mac or iPad Pro for college, as well as education pricing on Mac, iPad Pro, AppleCare, select accessories and more.

New Leather Sleeves for MacBook Pro

First introduced with MacBook, Apple leather sleeves are now available for the 13-inch and 15-inch MacBook Pro in Saddle Brown, Midnight Blue and, for the first time, Black. Designed with high-quality leather and a soft microfiber lining for extra protection, the sleeves are a perfect complement to MacBook Pro for users on the go.

macOS Mojave Coming this Fall

This fall, MacBook Pro can be updated with macOS Mojave, the latest version of the world’s most advanced desktop operating system, with new features inspired by pros but designed for everyone. In macOS Mojave, a new Dark Mode transforms the desktop with a dramatic new look that puts the focus on user content. The new Stacks feature organises messy desktops by automatically stacking files into neat groups. Familiar iOS apps, including News, Stocks, Voice Memos and Home, are now available on the Mac for the first time. FaceTime now adds support for group calling, and the Mac App Store gets a full redesign featuring rich editorial content and the addition of apps from top developers, including Microsoft and Adobe.

Availability

Starting at £1,749 and £2,349 respectively, the updated 13-inch MacBook Pro models with Touch Bar and 15-inch MacBook Pro models with Touch Bar are available today through Apple.com and in select Apple retail stores and Apple Authorised Resellers later this week. Additional technical specifications, configure-to-order options and accessories are available online at www.apple.com/mac.

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VRM Power Guide http://personal-view.com/talks/discussion/21417/vrm-power-guide Mon, 28 Jan 2019 12:48:40 -0700 Vitaliy_Kiselev 21417@/talks/discussions From sinhardware, copied from WBMachine

To begin talking about voltage regulators, and since this article is aimed at those without strong engineering backgrounds, we first will need to define certain terms which pertain to this article. The terms and definitions explain every part of the VRM and really will help, so please glance over them, because you will be wondering what the difference between the high-side and low-side MOSFETs are, and you need to read the definition of each term for things to make sense. You are basically getting a crash course in power supply design at a level that anyone who is interested can understand. So before the definitions I will give a quick analogy of how a motherboard VRM works.

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The water faucet analogy is slightly imperfect, however valid in many ways. Think about the process it takes for getting water out of your facet; the water has to be clean, at a decent pressure, and it needs to come in any amount you need it to. The power will be the water in this analogy. To produce the water in your faucet, water has to be controlled from a large source, cleaned, and then put into pipes and pressurized to reach your home. A CPU needs power like we need water, and the source for us might be a large lake, but from the CPU the source is your computer’s main AC/DC PSU(power supply). The water for us is then routed to a water treatment center, and that is basically what a VRM does. The water then needs to be pressurized and cleaned, that is basically what the phases do. The MOSFETs act like pumps, and the drivers are their controlling the pumps (MOSFETs) like valves (drivers). The inductors then store and clean the water like a purification tank, then all the purification tanks (inductors) send their water straight to the holding tank(capacitors) or straight to the city to people’s faucets. The PWM is the main control and the drivers (valves) are controlled by the PWM.

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VRM: Voltage regulator module, this term refers to anything from a linear regulator to a synchronous multiphase buck converter, which is a switch mode power supply, which is what your motherboard's CPU VRM is. People also call the VRM the PWM, which isn't correct, PWM refers to a modulation scheme or a chip, not the entire circuit, however since PWM has a catchy ring to it people still refer to the VRM as the PWM. Some others may also call the VRM a VR or a VRC(voltage regulator circuit).

PWM: Pulse Width Modulation or Modulator, this is a scheme where phases are turned on and off in a pulse like manner, it can also refer to the control chip of the VRM. The PWM control chip does everything from turn on phases to monitoring different characteristics of the VRM, the PWM is the only part of a VRM that could be considered digital in nature, however it is possible to design the PWM with analog mechanisms(which is quite easy and popular).

Duty Cycle: The duty cycle is a ratio of Vout divided by Vin, so if there is a 12v input and a 1.2v output then the duty cycle is 0.1 or 10%, the duty cycle determines how long the high-side MOSFET needs to be on, and in this case it is 10% of the time to get 1.2v output. The duty cycle determines how often the high-side switches while the switching frequency determines how often it switches.

Switching frequency: This is the frequency at which the VRM switches or pulses. Increased switching frequency means that the current will move more quickly throughout the VRM, however while increased switching frequency helps with transient response and helps to decrease ripple, it also reduces efficiency and increases temperature. With a low duty cycle the switching frequency is also limited. The switching frequency determines how often the phases switch or pulse. So if the switching frequency is 300khz then the phases pulse 300,000 times per second or pulses once every 3.33 microseconds(usec) or 3.33e-6 seconds. Switching frequency also needs to be constant along phases, so if you double the phase count you should also cut the frequency in half for each of the doubled phases, if you don't do this, then the entire effective switching frequency of the entire VRM can double and lead to issues unless already accounted for.  

MOSFET: Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor, basically a simple switch which can turn on (connect the source and drain) if a voltage is supplied to the gate. There are usually 3 points to a MOSFET, the gate which is used to control the MOSFET, the drain which is where the current flows to, and the source which is connected to the source of the current. A MOSFET is basically a switch/electronic valve. This is easy to think about, when a certain voltage is supplied to the gate, the source and drain are then connected for current to flow freely. By the way FET is MOSFET for short.

High-Side MOSFET: This MOSFET has its source connected to an input, usually 12v in modern VRMs, and its drain is connected to the inductor / source of the low-side MOSFET. The driver controls its gate. The high-side MOSFET's switching losses are very high as it will be pulsed very quickly. When a phase is ON, then the high-side MOSFET is also on. The duty cycle determines how long the high-side MOSFET stays on. The high-side MOSFET limits the current output of the phase. High-side MOSFET is also called the Control MOSFET.

Low-Side MOSFET: This MOSFET has its source at the inductor / the high-side's drain, the low-side's drain is connected to the ground. This MOSFET is in charge of turning on when the phase is off, and it completes the circuit and allows the inductor to discharge all of its current. The conduction losses of the low-side MOSFET are very important as this MOSFET will stay on longer than the high-side. The low-side MOSFET is also sometimes called the synchronous (or sync) MOSFET.

Inductor: Also known as choke, this is an energy storage/filter component. It is made up of a thick coiled wire either surrounding and/or surrounded by some metal casing. This is probably the most recognizable part of a VRM, as it is the metal cube each phase has. The inductor stores energy in a magnetic field. The inductor is the ultimate limiter of the output current of each phase, the saturation current is the maximum current that the inductor can sustain. 

Capacitor: Most people know what a capacitor is; it is a sheet of thin metal put up right next to another sheet with a di-electric in between, then the sheets are wound into a circle and they are cased in metal. The capacitor stores energy in an electric field opposed to the magnetic field the inductor uses. Electric and magnetic fields are related by the way.

Driver: In a VRM a driver isn't the dude who drives you around in a limo, but instead it is a chip which controls the MOSFETs in each phase. The driver is controlled by the PWM and is an integral part of the system.

Doubler: We will talk about the doubler a little as they are commonly used today in the phase wars. They basically are like a multiplexer which takes a single PWM signal and divides that signal into two, however it also reduces the maximum switching frequency by half. There are also some quadrouplers, these are interesting as I have only seen one which is in production(IR3599) and it takes a single input and basically divides it into 4 by dividing into 2 twice, and you get an output which is ¼ the switching frequency of the input. Nowadays we see single doubler chips, or we see them integrated into the driver, however in the past sometimes motherboard makers used analog switches, which would take in 4 PWM signals and output 8. The only place you see this done now is with some X58/Z77/Z68 MSI motherboards.

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Situation with Wi-Fi adapters and routers, as it is in reality http://personal-view.com/talks/discussion/21465/situation-with-wi-fi-adapters-and-routers-as-it-is-in-reality Fri, 01 Feb 2019 20:24:30 -0700 Vitaliy_Kiselev 21465@/talks/discussions image

First sad thing

Every company try to advertise non existing numbers.

For example, for good USB adapter it can be AC1900 or 600Mpbs on 2.4GHz band and 1300Mbps on 5GHz band. At first, forget 2.4Ghz, in any real place it'll be so crowded that almost any good adapter or router will have similar low speeds. And you can't sum the two anyway.

1300Mbps here means that adapter is 3x3 MIMO, or has 3 separate antennas used both for transmission and receiving of signals each in separate band.

  • 1x1 MIMO in all cheap adapters can theoretically reach 433Mbps.
  • 2x2 MIMO in more advanced notes and most routers can theoretically reach 867Mbps.
  • 3×3 MIMO can be found in lot of routers/access points and also in really good notes/smartphones (like Apple and Samsung).
  • 4x4 MIMO in top routers and few top adapters can theoretically reach 1732Mbps.

First Note! You need really almost no interference for all this to work good. Otherwise speed will start to drop really fast from limits mentioned.

Second Note! Speeds mentioned are bare theoretical speeds including all correction codes, protocols expanses, etc and have very small relation to real transfer speed you can measure.

Good case test (2x2-4x4 access points connected to 3x3 Mac Pro)

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Teclast F7 Plus - Another Gemini lake Note http://personal-view.com/talks/discussion/21398/teclast-f7-plus-another-gemini-lake-note Sat, 26 Jan 2019 03:40:37 -0700 Vitaliy_Kiselev 21398@/talks/discussions

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Intell Cofee Lake S, 8 core CPU comes in Q3 2018 http://personal-view.com/talks/discussion/19675/intell-cofee-lake-s-8-core-cpu-comes-in-q3-2018 Wed, 09 May 2018 20:59:15 -0600 Vitaliy_Kiselev 19675@/talks/discussions image

Present rumors are that Intel will drop single cores frequency (around 5-10%) and also will require you to buy new motherboard.

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PSU, Bureaucrats, Engineers and PCIE connectors http://personal-view.com/talks/discussion/21480/psu-bureaucrats-engineers-and-pcie-connectors Mon, 04 Feb 2019 21:30:17 -0700 Vitaliy_Kiselev 21480@/talks/discussions image

Look at PCIe connectors pinout, it is very interesting thingy.

As its origins can tell you a lot about committee, bureaucrats who are present in them and highly specialized engineers who are forced to go around stupid decisions.

Bureaucrats reversed wires assignment compared to ATX CPU connector, in absolutely stupid attempt to provide reason why they must be paid for their work.

During design bureaucrats realized that many capitalist manufacturers will put crap thin wires in their PSU for PCIE power delivery. Proper sane man will work with ATX standard and set strict specifications to always use 3 wires for 12V 6 pin connector (and 4 for 8 pin one) and 3 wires for ground, copper ones and no smaller than specified gauge. But no.

Decision looked smart for bureaucrats but in reality it is utter stupid. They added special sense wire so properly designed PSU will sense actual voltage drop across the crappy wires and adjust +12V going only to this connector to compensate for this drop.

Well, at first. It is cheap crappy power supplies that save each cent and use thin alu wires. They won't do extremely advanced implementation you want from them. And expensive power suppliers with good thick wires do not need it much.

Second. It requires separate step up DC-DC regulator for each PCIE connector inside PSU. It is around 20x more expensive than to use good wires. I am not even talking that none of standard IC for PSUs have support for such features or that it is not much space inside PSU for all this shit.

Third. GPU manufacturers are also not stupid and know that they can't rely on top quality +12V values at mass market cheap PSU, so they try to design their power stages with good margin or voltage drop.

Perfect example of people who got lot of money, wasted lot of time and instead of simple copy of ATX CPU connector induced problems no one asked for.

It is all something like this one Youtube sketch, just in real task:

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Making 10Gbit Network using 10GBASE-T adapters, for cheap http://personal-view.com/talks/discussion/21475/making-10gbit-network-using-10gbase-t-adapters-for-cheap- Mon, 04 Feb 2019 00:43:11 -0700 Vitaliy_Kiselev 21475@/talks/discussions It'll be much simpler topic than previous, but with more warnings ahead:

Our adapters choice - used Dell Broadcom 57810S Dual Port 10GBASE-T Converged Network Adapter

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For $45 only per adapter (cost of one good new single port Intel 1Gbit separate card)

https://www.ebay.com/itm/Dell-Broadcom-57810S-Dual-Port-10GBASE-T-Converged-Network-Adapter-HN10N-Low-P/132761054157

Few main reasons:

  • Cheap
  • Ability to attach adapter to different networks or join forces of two ports to reach 20Gbit (but usually it'll be only for multiple transfers).
  • Official support for RDMA, rare for adapters outside Mellanox. Note that actual support for it in Windows drivers must be checked. I saw negative reports on this.

Stay away from relatively cheap (<$110) new copper based 10GBASE-T adapters, usually using Aquantia AQtion controller. They are fine things, but made for consumer market and do not have server grade drivers with necessary features and not designed for low CPU utilization.

On cables

If length of the cables is small you can use worse cables than recommended, here I mean old Cat 5e patches and cables, in case they are good quality and not damaged. Plus EMI in your place is not extreme. Cat 6 cables just have more turns in each twisted pair per same length, plus use thicker wires. Chinese Cat 7 patch cords are also pretty nice shielded things, if not too long (as they sometimes can save on copper :-) )

Otherwise follow official recommendations and in case of significant EMI use shielded cables.

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Engineers, marketing and thermidor in motherboards http://personal-view.com/talks/discussion/21487/engineers-marketing-and-thermidor-in-motherboards Tue, 05 Feb 2019 01:55:25 -0700 Vitaliy_Kiselev 21487@/talks/discussions We went from this:

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That is pure modular thing, made to perform certain function.

To dreams of idiotic marketing:

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And it is not just fun, as for you pay around 2.5x the possible normal price for board with good quality and VRM.
All this extra 150% go into bells and whistles, marketing campaigns, paid and just free prostitute influencers and test boards for them.
And you also pay for all integrated features, even if you don't need some. Each time, for each new board.

In history we have visual parallels, as process going in society is also very similar

Sans-culottes

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Muscadins - les Incroyables et Merveilleuses - sign of Thermidorian Reaction in France

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Sandy Bridge - old but usable, even for 4K http://personal-view.com/talks/discussion/17145/sandy-bridge-old-but-usable-even-for-4k Wed, 14 Jun 2017 06:26:58 -0600 Vitaliy_Kiselev 17145@/talks/discussions For starters small tip. Not all guys know that you can overclock even non K models, if on proper MB.

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Usually it is enough to use build in MB automatic feature.

On average it'll be 3.8Ghz for 4 cores mode + 103Mhz BCLK, overall it is 15% performance rise (it takes Intel around 4 CPU generations now to do same :-).

In reality, of course it is simpler to get i2500K for around $51.5 (like Z77, P67 does not support it)

http://aliexpress.com/item/For-Intel-i5-2500K-Processor-Quad-Core-3-3GHz-LGA-1155-TDP-95W-6MB-Cache-With/32635885077.html

Around 95-99% of CPUs work perfect at 4500Ghz, and around 30-40% on good cooler can work at 4.8-5Ghz.

Overclocked Sandy Bridge with GPU like 1050 / RX 460 still is cheapest build for 4K editing, especially with proper editor.

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Humble Editing System http://personal-view.com/talks/discussion/21464/humble-editing-system Fri, 01 Feb 2019 19:42:59 -0700 Vitaliy_Kiselev 21464@/talks/discussions Will be posting some ideas about affordable editing system for high volume videos editing.

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Fast 10-100Gbit networks for video editors http://personal-view.com/talks/discussion/21474/fast-10-100gbit-networks-for-video-editors Sun, 03 Feb 2019 22:14:23 -0700 Vitaliy_Kiselev 21474@/talks/discussions Topic will contain basics for clear understanding.

We assume that network will be made for individual or small team and will be made from ground up, not using existing cables and such.

Specific topics:

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No HDMI 2.0 and HDR for your Intel system? Say thanks for copyrats! http://personal-view.com/talks/discussion/21473/no-hdmi-2.0-and-hdr-for-your-intel-system-say-thanks-for-copyrats Sun, 03 Feb 2019 17:57:01 -0700 Vitaliy_Kiselev 21473@/talks/discussions Big corporations releasing HDR films want your system to always have HDCP 2.2 active. Not only this, but they even can decide that systems exactly will have feature enabled. Like they forced Intel to not making it work in Gemini Lake.

Most i7 and i9 modern platforms still do not have HDMI 2.0 ports... because of HDCP, LSPCON ships are expensive if they have proper implementation of HDCP 2.2.

Lot of older TVs have HDMI 2.0 ports, but not with HDCP 2.2 support disabling output if you watch legal 4K content and making you learn useful stuff to watch same content in higher quality and much cheaper :-)

Of course Intel famous laziness, as they did not change their GPU part for 3-4 generations, also plays some role here.

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Intel blocked Coffee Lake on old MBs or how to run it on Z170 and Z270 boards http://personal-view.com/talks/discussion/19131/intel-blocked-coffee-lake-on-old-mbs-or-how-to-run-it-on-z170-and-z270-boards Mon, 05 Mar 2018 15:09:23 -0700 Vitaliy_Kiselev 19131@/talks/discussions image

Blocks was made in software in multiple places like CPU microcode, iGPU UEFI GOP, Management Engine Modules in BIOS.

Of course if power part of MB is weak it won't help with running 6 core CPUs.

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Capitalism and motherboards http://personal-view.com/talks/discussion/21469/capitalism-and-motherboards Sat, 02 Feb 2019 11:52:10 -0700 Vitaliy_Kiselev 21469@/talks/discussions

If core value is good looks and only transaction moment instead of fulfilling needs - this is that you get. And RGB, of course.

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Capitalism: Funny story related to USB, AMD and ASMedia http://personal-view.com/talks/discussion/21416/capitalism-funny-story-related-to-usb-amd-and-asmedia Mon, 28 Jan 2019 12:25:35 -0700 Vitaliy_Kiselev 21416@/talks/discussions Main reason why AMD turned to ASMedia had been to integrate USB 3.1 Gen2 support into all of their chipsets.

And indeed, in spec sheets you see it in A320, B350, X370, B450 and X470.

But, in reality in 95-99% of all cases you won't find them used on motherboards.

Instead motherboards makers opt out for additional controllers from... ASMedia - 1142, 1143, 2142 and 3142.

And even more fun fact - two of them are significantly worse than build in controller, and two others are slightly worse and also take two PCI-E lines that could be used for other things.

Implementation using build in controller need recklockers made by... ASMedia and incidentally they had been pricey and in very short supply constantly.

So, Asmedia implemented special scheme making each and every board around $3-7 more expensive and lacking some other feature due to this and also due to less space on board.

This is how capitalism works. Induce billions in damages to make your own little income stream.

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